Joseph Smith moved to the Homestead at Nauvoo, a log house on the eastern bank of the Mississippi River, after escaping from Missouri in April 1839. It served as Church headquarters for about two years.
While living at the Nauvoo Homestead, Joseph Smith received the revelation now contained in D&C 124 (which included the command to build the Nauvoo Temple).
After the Martyrdom at Carthage Jail the bodies of Joseph and Hyrum Smith were carried in separate wagons to Nauvoo for burial. The Homestead is the final resting place of the martyrs Joseph and Hyrum.
Joseph, Emma, Hyrum, Joseph Sr., and Lucy Smith and others are buried in the family cemetery next to the Homestead.
To the west of the Homestead, along the banks of the Mississippi Joseph Smith owned and operated the Red Brick Store. It served as Church headquarters for a time.
Joseph Smith organized the Relief Society here in the upper room on March 17, 1842, with Emma Smith as president.
Construction of the Nauvoo Temple began in the spring of 1841 on a hilltop overlooking the Mississippi River. The Saints eagerly labored to receive the blessings promised by the Lord. In the baptismal font, dedicated nine months later, the Saints performed proxy baptisms in behalf of the dead. This temple, which was such an integral part of the Lord's work, was not completed before Joseph Smith died a martyr.
From December 1845 to February 1846, Church leaders worked in the temple both night and day to administer its sacred ordinances to as many worthy Saints as possible before the Church was forced from Nauvoo. Nearly 6,000 faithful Saints received their endowments before moving west (Our Heritage: A Brief History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , 60–61).
After the Saints left Illinois, the temple was destroyed by fire and a tornado. The Church reacquired the temple lot in 1937 and rebuilt the Nauvoo Temple on its original site in 2002.
Carthage was the location of the county jail. Many of the mob were state militia who had been released from duty and came to Carthage on the road from Warsaw.
Joseph and Hyrum Smith were held in Carthage Jail pending a trial on false charges. On June 27, 1844, at around 5:00 p. m., a mob stormed the jail and killed Joseph and Hyrum.